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The Campaign for Responsible Transplantation

Who is CRT?

The Campaign for Responsible Transplantation (CRT), a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was launched on January 20, 1998 out of concern over the irresponsible rush to commercialize animal-to-human organ, cell and tissue transplantation (xenotransplantation) using genetically modified pigs, and nonhuman primates. CRT believes that xenotransplantation poses a grave danger to human health because of the risk of transferring deadly animal viruses to the human population. Xenotransplantation would burden our society with numerous health, environmental, economic, ethical, and legal problems, and would cause tremendous human and nonhuman suffering. There are safer and more cost-effective ways to resolve the alleged shortage of human organs for transplantation that are not being adequately explored. CRT is, therefore, seeking a total ban on xenotransplantation. CRT's international coalition includes more than 90 public interest groups, representing millions of people concerned about the misuse of genetic engineering technology. CRT is supported by eminent physicians, scientists, veterinarians, scholars, lawyers and concerned laypersons. Membership is open to all and participation is encouraged.

Some of CRT's member organizations include:
Americans for Safe Food (US)
Committee for Children (US)
Doctors for the Environment (Switzerland)
Doctors and Lawyers for Responsible Medicine (UK)
E: The Environmental Magazine (US)
Earth Island Institute (US)
Farming and Livestock Concern (UK)
Greenpeace (Switzerland)
Idaho Sporting Congress (US)
International Center for Technology Assessment (US)
The Jane Goodall Institute (US)
The Loka Institute (US)
Medical Research Modernization Committee (US)
Mothers for Natural Law (US)
Native Forest Council (US)
Natural Health Society of Australia
New Mexico Center for Chronic Disorders (US)
No Gen (Holland)
Notre Dame de Toute Pitie (France)
Organic Consumers Association (US)
Peoples Medical Society (US)
Physicians & Scientists for Responsible Genetics (New Zealand)
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (US)
Protect Our Earth's Treasures (US)
and numerous animal protection organizations

What is CRT Doing?

  • On November 27, 2000, CRT retained the Washington, DC public interest law firm of Meyer & Glitzenstein, and filed a historic lawsuit against the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The lawsuit sought all FDA-generated records related to side-effects, including infections, and deaths in human xenotransplantation trials. (See "lawsuit" link). The FDA, along with 6 biotechnology companies, spent several years fighting the release of documents to CRT. Nevertheless, the Court compelled the FDA to release thousands of pages of documents to CRT. CRT is the only organization in the US to have sued a government agency to obtain information about the risks of xenotransplantation.

  • On December 10, 1998, CRT filed a legal petition with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) demanding a ban on xenotransplantation. The petition was signed by 55 scientists, physicians, veterinarians and concerned laypersons. On December 7, 2000, HHS formally denied the petition.

  • CRT collected thousands of signatures on a non-legal petition supporting a ban on xenotransplantation. It presented an initial group of signatures to HHS in 2000.

  • CRT has distributed resource materials to journalists, scholars, scientists, legislators, advocacy groups, students, laypersons, and members of the press.

  • CRT's website,, provides information on xenotransplantation, and provides ways for the public to voice its concerns about the technology.

  • CRT spokespersons have granted radio interviews, spoken to audiences, and submitted Op-Eds and letters to the editor. These have appeared in The Houston Chronicle, The British Medical Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and Biography magazine, among others.

  • CRT has monitored scientific journals, newspapers, government databases, and the Internet, and has attended public meetings on xenotransplantation, to track the development, financing, and regulation of the technology.